Information about Malaysia

Malaysia - state in Southeast Asia, consisting of two parts separated by the South China Sea:
West Malaysia (the traditional name - Malaya) occupies the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula and the adjacent islands, bordered by Thailand in the north, also has maritime borders with Singapore and Indonesia.
East Malaysia (the traditional name - Sabah and Sarawak) occupies the northern part of the island of Borneo and the adjacent islands, bordered by Brunei to the north and Indonesia to the south, also has a maritime border with the Philippines.

Capital: Kuala Lumpur has a population of about 1.9 million. The administrative center - Putradjaya, where all federal departments and agencies, with the exception of the Ministry of Defence and the Parliament.

Population: Malaysia has 30.7 million (January 2015). The Malays and the indigenous peoples of the Malay Peninsula and Borneo, the so-called "Bumiputra", account for about 65% of the total population, the Chinese - 26%, Indians and other ethnic groups in South Asia - 8%, of Europeans and other nationalities - about 1%.

Official language: Malaysian. In communicating with foreigners - English.

Time: ahead Bishkek time to 2 hours.

Religion: State religion - Islam. Despite the recognition of Islam as the state religion, the constitution guarantees freedom of religion. According to the 2010 census, Muslims make up 61.3% of the population of Malaysia, Buddhists - 19.8%, Christians - 9.2%, Hindus - 6.3%, about 1.3% practice Confucianism, Taoism and other traditional Chinese religions .

History: Malaysia dates back to the establishment of the Sultanate of Malacca in the XIV century. In 1511 Malacca was conquered by Portugal, and in 1641 moved to Holland. In 1786 on the island of Penang British built the first fortifications. In 1815, by decision of the Congress of Vienna in the colonial territories under Allied Napoleon Malaya and Singapore have moved to the United Kingdom since 1888, and the territory of the present states of Sabah and Sarawak (Borneo) became a protectorate of the English Crown.
In 1942-1945 Malaysia was occupied by Japanese troops.
August 31, 1957 Federation of Malaya gained independence from Britain. In 1965, after the separation of Singapore and joining of Sabah and Sarawak was de facto established State Malaysia.

Administrative structure: Malaysia has a federal structure: it consists of 13 states and three federal territories - the capital of Kuala Lumpur, the administrative center of Putrajaya and Labuan island off the coast of Sabah. In nine states (Perlis, Kedah, Perak, Kelantan, Trengganu, Pahang, Selangor, Negeri Sembilan, Johor) the right of hereditary monarchy - Sultans. The remaining four states - Malacca, Penang, Sabah and Sarawak - are controlled by governors, appointed for a four year term. Federal Territory do not have independent administrative systems, their management is appointed by the central government.

Government: Constitutional monarchy. Head of State - Supreme ruler (king), who is elected for five years among the hereditary rulers of nine states of the federation on a rotating basis. Since December 2011 it is the Sultan Kedah Abdul Halim of Kedah.
According to the Constitution, the Supreme Ruler controls the state, referring to the prime minister, the cabinet and parliament. King claims the laws passed by Parliament, the leaders of the major candidates of the government, has the right to pardon convicts and is chief of the armed forces of the country. In practice, it remains the nominal head of state, while retaining exclusive authority only in some particular issues (Islam, the status of the sultans).
Leaders of 13 Malaysian states form a special body - the Board of governors, whose main function is to elect the head of state. However, it fixed and other specific issues relating to resolving disputes among the several States, the situation of indigenous people and others.

Legislature: Malaysia - a bicameral parliament. The upper house - the Senate. It consists of 70 members (44 senators appointed by the Supreme Ruler and 26 - elected by the legislative assemblies of the states - two from the state). The term of a senator - for three years, may be extended only once.
The lower house - the House of Representatives consists of 222 deputies - formed for a term of five years by universal adult suffrage.
Senate headed by the chairman (currently - Abu Zahar Udzhang), the House of Representatives - the speaker (Pandikar Amin Mulia). The right to vote and be elected to the House of Representatives are persons who have reached 21 years. The Senator - a person not less than 30 years.
Supreme ruler has the right to dissolve the parliament on the proposal of the Prime Minister.
Each state has a local legislative body - unicameral Legislative Assembly. The number of members is set depending on the size of the state's population.

Executive power: Executive power is vested in the Cabinet of Ministers headed by the Prime Minister, who became leader of the party that won the most seats in the House in the general election. Held on May 5, 2013 parliamentary elections for the second termwas appointed Malaysian Prime Minister Najib Razak , who has served as president of the country's largest political party, the United Malays National Organization (UMNO), and the Minister of Finance of Malaysia.

There are 26 federal ministries and the Prime Minister's Office (actually Ministry, which includes four ministers). The Cabinet consists of the Prime Minister, his deputies, ministers, deputy ministers (of 70 people.) And appointed by the Supreme ruler of the country. According to the constitution, the cabinet member must be a member of either House of Parliament.
The executive power in the states carried out by local governments or the executive boards of the states. They are headed by the Chief Minister, appointed by the sultans / governors on the results of the local elections to the legislative assembly.

Economy: According to the main economic indicators, Malaysia ranks among the newly industrialized countries.
According to the Department of Statistics Malaysia, in 2014 GDP growth amounted to 6% (334.3 billion dollars USA). GDP per capita - 10.838 dollars USA
The unemployment rate - 2.7%.
It is estimated that in 2014 the growth rate in the agricultural and mining sectors accounted for 9.4%, in the manufacturing sector - 9.0%, in construction - 8.8%.
On the industry accounts for 80.0 bln dollars USA. The most important directions of its activity - production of electronic and electrical products, export-oriented. Other major industries - chemical, food, rubber, industrial, metalworking, production of transport equipment. There are three domestic car companies - "Proton", "Perodua" and "Khaykom."
Agricultural industry, where leading positions belong to enterprises for the production of palm oil, provides 30.2 billion dollars USA.
The share of the mining industry - 32.5 billion dollars(mainly due to oil and gas), construction - 14.6 billion dollars USA.
The total volume of the country in 2014 amounted to 452.8 billion $ (5.9%). The volume of exports has exceeded 239.4 billion $ (+ 6.4%), import - 213.4 billion $ (5.3%). The trade balance of the country in 2014 amounted to 26 billion $, which is 10.5% more than in 2012. Over the past 17 years, the trade balance has always had a surplus.
Malaysia's main exports in 2014 were electrical machinery and equipment (48,6 bln $), electronic goods (26.34 billion $), chemical products (38.0 bln. $ ), machinery and mechanical appliances (8.57 billion $).
Main import goods - electrical machinery and equipment (54.51 billion $), mineral fuel and oil (22.86 billion $), chemical products (17.78 billion $), equipment mechanical appliances (16.41 billion $).
The main trade partners of Malaysia for five years are China (2.2%), Singapore (+ 8.2%) and Japan (1.4%). The share of ASEAN's foreign trade turnover amounted to 26.8% of Malaysia, while in the EU countries had 6.2% and the United States - 7.4%.
As of November 2014 foreign exchange reserves amounted to 125.0 bln $.

Holidays and public holidays: For nation-wide holidays are: January 3rd - Birthday of the Prophet Mohammed, 19 * February - Chinese New Year, May 1 - Labor Day, June 6 - Birthday of the King of Malaysia, 18 * June - beginning of Ramadan, 17 * July - Eid al Fitr, August 31 - Independence Day, September 16 - Day of Malaysia, 24 * September - Kurban Bayram, 14 October - Islamic New Year, November 20 - Day Depavali December 24 - Birthday of the Prophet Mohammed, December 25 - Christmas. In addition, each state has its own holidays.
* - The date determined by the lunar calendar.

Climate: Tropical. The average annual temperature is + 30 C.

Currencies: Currency - Malaysian ringgit (Ringgit Malaysia - RM). Exchange rate: 1 USD. United States is 3.68 mal.ringgit (Central Bank of Malaysia on June 3, 2015). Import and export of foreign currency is not limited to Malaysia. When cases of exceeding the limit on the import or export of foreign currency in excess of $ 10,000. US customs forms to fill №22 (Customs Form 22). Import and export of the local currency (the ringgit) is allowed up to 10,000 dollars. USA.

Connections: There is a transit flight on the route Bishkek-Kuala Lumpur via Tashkent Uzbek airlines, as well as flights of "Air Astana" on the route Kuala Lumpur-Almaty.

Border control: When crossing the border must present a passport. For the citizens of the Kyrgyz Republic for a stay in Malaysia without a visa is - up to 90 (ninety) days.

Customs control: Duty-free import of cigarettes - 200 pcs., or 50 cigars, or 225 grams tobacco, wine and liquors - 1 liter., souvenirs no more than 200 ringgit. The import of electronic, audio and video are not more than 1 item per person.
Mandatory customs control to import / export to be weapons, items and art. Smuggling of narcotic drugs is punishable by death.